Ḥadīth, the Shī‘a Cultural Memory: An Investigation of the Orientalists' Opinions on the Status of Ḥadīth and the Later Shī‘a Collections of Ḥadīth with an Emphasis on Rainer Brunner's Views

Document Type: Scholary

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, the Department of the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth Studies, Shāhid University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, the Department of the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth Studies, al-Zahrā University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

One of the specialized Ḥadīth domains in the recent orientalist studies is the investigation of the reasons and factors of the appearance and advent of the Shī‘a Ḥadīths and the reason behind the Shī‘a followers and scholars in the learning and recording of the narrations and formation of "The Shī‘a cultural memory" in the later years and so, the advent of the "later narration collections". The first question of the study at hand regards the points and issues considered by them in studying and analyzing this cultural memory as well as the goals they pursued. In this regard, it is argued that this consideration has not been away from harms and incorrect conclusions, and so, in some cases it has challenged the origin and authenticity of Ḥadīth among the Shī‘a. Moreover, from among the main Ḥadīth cultural memories of the Shī‘a, the orientalist studies have mostly paid attention to Biḥār al-anwār. The extensive consideration of this work along with a criticism of it is the other question of this article. The article at hand presents and describes the main suggested orientalists' opinions regarding the two foregoing questions through an emphasis on Rainer Brunner's "The role of Ḥadīth as cultural memory in Shi'i history" so as to identify and analyze the discrepancies and commonalities of their thoughts.

Keywords


‘Ābidī, A. (1999), knowing Biḥār al-anwār: the largest encyclopedia of Shī‘a Ḥadīth. Tehran, the Publication Office of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.

Algar, H. (2000), ‘Allāmah Majlisī from the viewpoint of the orientalists. Ma‘rifat, No. 36, pp. 101-105.

Amīr-Mu‘izzī, M. A. (1954), Al-Ṭūsī. In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs, Leiden, Brill Press, vol. 2: 745-746.

Ayyūb, M. (1988), The Speaking Qur’ān and the Silent Qur’ān; A Study of the Principles and Development of Imāmī Shīʻī Tafsīr. Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur’ān, Edited by Andrew Rippin, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Bar-Asher, M. M. (1999), Scripture and Exegesis in Early Imāmī Shiism. Leiden, Brill Press.

Bayhom-Daoum, T. (2005), Shaykh Mufīd. Oxford, Makers of the Muslim World.

Brown, J. A. C. (2009), Ḥadīth: Muḥammadʼs legacy in the medieval and modern world. Oxford, Oneworld, Foundations of Islam.

Brunner, R. (2005), The Role of Ḥadīth as Cultural Memory in Shīʻa. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, No. 30, pp. 318–360.

Gleave, R. (2001), Between Ḥadīth and Fiqh:The “Canonical” Imāmī Collections of Akhbār. Islamic Law and Society, vol. 8: 350-382.

Haider, N. (2001), The Origins of The Shīʻa, Identity, Ritual, and Sacred Space in Eight Century Kūfa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ḥasannīyā, A. & Rād, A. (2015), The orientalists and the Imamite Shī‘a: Classification and analysis of the studies. ‘Ulūm Ḥadīth, No. 78, pp.23-59.

Jarrār, M. (2000), Sīrat Ahl al-Kisā:Early Shīʻī Sources on the Biography of the Prophet. In the Biography of Muḥammad, Edited by Harald Motzki, Leiden, Brill Press, 98-153.

Kohlberg, E. (1983), Shīʻī Ḥadīth. In The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature:Arabic Literature until the End of the Umayyad Period, London, 299-307.

id. (1987), Al-Uṣūl al-ʼArbaʻumiʼa. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic & Islam, vol. 10: 128-166.

id. (1989), Biḥār al-ʼAnwār. in Iranica (internet version).

id. (2013), Introduction to Shīʻī Ḥadīth Section. The Study of Shīʻī Islam:History, Theology and Law, Edited by Farhad Daftary and Gurdof Miskinzoda, vol. 2: 165-180.

Kulaynī, M. (1969), Al-Kāfī. Edited by ‘Alī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyyah, 2nd imprint.

Ma‘ārif, M. (2008), Discussions on the history of Ḥadīth: The process of development – Knowing the resources. Tehran, Naba’ Publicaitons.

Madelung, W. (1954), Al-Mufīd. in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs, Leiden, Brill Press, vol. 7: 312-313.

Majlisī, M. B. (1983), Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut, Dār ’Iḥyā al-Turāth al-‘Arabī

Neishābūrī, M. (1991), Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. Edited by: Muḥammad Fu’ād ‘Abd al-Bāqī, Cairo, Dār al- Ḥadīth

McDermott, M. J. (1978), The Theology of Al-Shaykh Al-Mufīd. Beirut, Dār al-Mashriq.

Motzki, H. (2010), Hadith: Origins and Developments. Edited by Murtiḍā Karīmīnīā, Qom, Dār al-Ḥadīth.

Newman, A. J. (2000), The formative period of Twelver Shīʻīsm:Ḥadīth as discourse between Qom and Baghdād. Richmond. Surrey:Curzon.

Qism al-Kalām fī Majma‘ al-Buḥūth al-Islāmīyyah, Sharḥ al-Muṣṭalaḥāt al-Kalāmiyyah. (1994), Sharḥ al-Muṣṭalaḥāt al-Kalāmiyyah. Tehran, Majma‘ al-Buḥūth al-Islāmīyyah.

Schmidtke, S. (1991), The Theologhy of al-ʻAllāma al-Ḥillī. Berlin, Klaus Schwarz Verlag.

Shahristānī, M. (1948), Al-Milal wa al-niḥal. Edited by Aḥmad Fahmī Muḥammad. Beirut: Dār al-Surūr.

Sharīf Raḍī, M. (1985), Khaṣā’iṣ al-a’immah (Khaṣā’iṣ ’Amīr al-Mu’minīn). Edited by: Muḥammad Hādī Amīnī, Mashhad, Ᾱstān Quds Raḍawī.

Shaykh Mufīd, M. (1992), Al-Irshād fī ma‘rifah Hujaj Allāh ‘Alal ‘Ibād. Qom, Ālul Bayt Institute.