The Efficiency of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Criticism System as Argued by the Qur’ānists and Traditionists

Document Type: Scholary

Authors

Associate Professor, the Department of the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth Sciences, the College of Fārābī, the University of Tehran, Qom, Iran

Abstract

Along with proving the sufficiency of the Qur’ān for the extraction of the religious knowledge, the Qur’ānists have doubted the authenticity and the authoritativeness of the sunna and Ḥadīth. One of their reasons for the inauthenticity of the sunna is the inefficiency of the Ḥadīth evaluation and criticism system. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present study first analyzes their main reasons for this inefficiency, including the existence of inauthentic traditions in Ḥadīth collections, the prevalence of forgery and fictions in Ḥadīth, the ignorance of internal criticism by Ḥadīth transmitters, the existence of gaps in the principles of the Rijāl ideas, and the existence of forgery and distortion in the chains of transmission. Then, the responses of the Ḥadīth defenders are discussed, including the possibility of justifying the Ḥadīths that have been deemed inauthentic, the ignorance of the different linguistic levels of the Ḥadīths, the Ḥadīth transmitters' constant efforts to purify the Ḥadīth legacy and identify the fabrications from the time of their issuance, the traditionists' efforts in and attention to the textual examination and strict Rijāl investigations.

Keywords


Ab­ū Rayya, M. (1999), Aḍwāʼ ʻalā al-Sunnat al-Muḥammadīyya. Qom, Anṣārīyān.

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ. (1965), Shaykh al-muḍīra abū hurayra. Cairo, Dār al-Maʻārif.

Ab­ū Shuhba, M. (1988), Difā‘ ‘an al-Sunna wa Radd Shubhat al-Mustashriq­īn wa al-Kitāb al-Mu‘āṣirīn wa bayān al-shubhat al-Wārida ‘alā al-Sunna qadīman wa Ḥadīthan wa Radduh­ā Raddan ‘ilmīyyan Ṣaḥīḥan. Cairo, Maktabat al-Sunna.

Ab­ū Zahw, M. (1983), al-Ḥadīth wa al-Muḥaddithūn, aw ʻInāyat al-Umma al-Islāmīyya bi l-Sunnat al-Nabīh. Riyadh, Shirkat al-Ṭibāʻat al-Suʻūdīyya.

Am­īn, A. (2008), Ḍuḥ al-Islām. Beirut, Dār al-Kitāb al-‘arabī.

 ـــــــــــــــــ.(1975), Fajr al-Islām: Kitāb fī Thalātha Ajzā’ Yabḥath ‘an al-Ḥālat al-‘Aqlīyya wa al-Sīyāsīyya  wa al-Adabīyya fī Ṣadr al-Islām ilā Ākhir al-Dawlat al-Umawīyya. Beirut, Dār al-kitāb al-‘arbī.

Āqāyī, A. (2010), "Qur’ān Basandigī wa Inkār Ḥujīyyat Ḥadīth: Barrisī  Khāstgāh wa Andīshihāyi Ahl Qur’ān/Qur’ānīyān". Ma‘rifat Kalāmī, No.3, 93-114.

As‘ad­ī, M. (2006), "Jarīyān Shenāsī Qur’Cn Basandigī Dar Du Qarn Akhīr (Nigāhī bih Shibh Qārra Hind  wa Kishwarhāyi ‘Arbī)". Ḥadīth wa Andīsha, No. 1, 95-106.

A‘ẓam­ī, M. (1976), Dirāsāt fī al-Ḥadīth al-Nabawī wa Tārīkh Tadwīnih. Rīyādh, Maktabat al-Kawthar.

ـــــــــــــ. (1976), Manhaj al-Naqd ‘ind al-Muḥaddithīn Nash’tuh wa Tārīkhuh. Rīyādh, Maktabat al-Kawthar.

Bahansāw­ī, S. (1988), al-Sunnat al-Muftarī  ‘alayhā. al-Manṣūra, Dār al-Wafā.

Brown, D. (1996),Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Bukhār­ī, M. (2001), al-Jāmi‘ al-musnad al-Ṣaḥīḥ al-Mukhtaṣar min Amūr Rasūl Ṣallā Allāh ‘alayh wa Sallam wa Sunanuh wa Ayyāmuh. Beirut, Dār Ṭawq al-nijāt.

Burton, J. (1977), The collection of the Quran. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Cook, M. & P. crone. (1977), Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ḥak­īm, M. (1981), al-Sunna fī Muwājihat al-Abāṭīl. Mecca, Rābiṭat al-‘ālam al-Islāmī.

Hāshim, A. (2000), Difā‘ ‘an al-Ḥadīth al-Nabawī. Cairo, Maktabat al-Wahaba.

ــــــــــــ. (1989), Manhaj al-Difā‘ ‘an al-Ḥadīth al-Nabawī. Cairo, Ministry of al-Awqāf.

Ilāh­ībakhsh, Kh. (2000), al-Qur’ānīyūn wa Shubahātuhum ḥawl al-sunna. Ṭa’if, Maktabat al-Ṣiddīq.

J­īlān­ī Barq, Gh. (1969), Du Islām. Lahore, Shaykh Nīyāz Aḥmad.

Kulaynī, M. (1986), al-Kāfī. edited by ‘Alī Akbar Ghaffārī & Muḥammad Ākhundī, Tehran, Dār al-kutub al-Islāmīyya.

Motzki, H. (1991), «The Muṣannaf of'Abd al-Razzaq al-Sanʻani as a Source of Authentic Ḥadith of the First Century A.H. ». Journal of Near Eastern Studies, No.50. 21-32.  

Muir, W. (1861), The Life of Mahomet and the History of Islam to the Era of Hegira. London, smith, elder and co., cornhill.

Musa,  A. (2008), Hadith As Scripture, Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, London, Mcmillan.

Muṭ‘anī, A. (2000), Hādhā Bayān lil-Nās: al-Shubahāt al-Thalāthūn al-Mathāra li Inkār al-Sunnat al-Nabawīyya, ‘Arḍ wa Tanfīḍ wa Naqṣ. Cairo, Maktabat al-Wahaba.

Naṣiḥ, A. , Gh. A‘rābī & W. Naṣr Allāh. (2014), "Barrisī wa Naqd Dīdgāhhāyi Qur’ānī wa Ḥadīthī Qur’ānīyān Ahl Sunnat". Pazhūhishnāmih Ma‘ārif Qur’ānī, No. 16, 153-179.

Naṣiḥ, A. & W. Naṣr Allāh, (2013), "al-Qur’ānīyūn wa Ahamm Shubahātuhum (Dirāsa Naqdīyya)". al-Adab al-‘Arabī, No.1, 193-216.

Parwez, G. & M. Jirajpuri, (2016), The Statuse Of Hadeeth in Islam, through The Quranic and Historical perspective. Translated and Edited by Ejaz Rasool, Lahore, Tolu-e.

Raf‘at Fawzī, A. (1979), Tawthīq al-Sunna fī al-Qarn al-thānī al-Hijrī: Assah wa Ittijāhātuh. Cairo, Maktabat al-Khānjī.

Rashīdriḍā, M. (1927), "Ajwabat al-Minār" . al-Minār, No.1, 39-51.

Raslān, M. (2009), al-Waḍ‘ fī al-Ḥadīth wa Juhūd al-‘ulumā’ fī Muwājihatih. Cairo, Dār al-Furqān wa Dār Aḍwā’ al-Salaf.

Rūshan ḍamīr, M. (2011), Jarīyān Shenāsī Qur’ān Basandigī. Tehran, Sukhan.

Sabā‘ī, M. (2006), al-Sunna wa Makānatuhā fī al-Tashrī‘ al-Islāmī. Cairo, Dār al-Warrāq.

Salaf­ī, M. (1999), Ihtimām al-Muḥaddithīn bi Naqd al-Ḥadīth Sanadan wa Matnan wa Daḥḍ Mazā‘im al-Mustashriqīn wa Atbā‘ihim. Rīyādh, Dār al-Dā‘ī.

Shaḥrūr,M. (2012), al-Sunnat al-Rasūlīyya wa al-Sunnat al-Nabawīyya. Beirut, Dār al-Sāqī.

Shirbīnī, A. (2001), Kitābāt A‘dā’ al-Islām ḥawl al-Sunna wa Munāqashatih. Cairo, Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣrīyya.

Ṣidqī, M. (1906), "al-Islām Huwa al-Qur’ān Waḥdah". Al-Minār, No.7, 515-525.

ـــــــــــــــــ. (1908), "Kalamāt fī al-Naskh wa al-Tawātur wa Akhbār al-Āḥād wa al-Sunna". Al-Minār, No.9, 688-696.

Ṣubḥī, Ṣ. (1988), ‘Ulūm al-Ḥadīth wa Muṣṭalaḥuh: ‘Arḍ wa Dirāsuh. Beirut, Dār al-‘Ilm lil-Malā’īn.

 ‘Umarī, A. (1994), Buḥūth fī Tārīkh al-Sunna al-Musharrafa. Medina, Maktab al-‘Ulūm wa al-Ḥikam.

ــــــــــــــــــــ. (1996), Manhaj al-Naqd ‘ind al-Muḥaddithīn: Muqārana bi al-Manhaj al-Naqdī al-Gharbī. Rīyādh, Dār Ishbīlīyā.

 ‘Uthman Falāta, A. (1981), al-Waḍ‘ fī al-Ḥadīth. Beirut, Maktabat al-Ghazzālī.

Yam­ānī, A. (1981), al-Anwār al-Kāshifa limā fī Kitāb Aḍwā’ ‘alā al-Sunna min Zulal wa al-Taḍlīl wa al-Mujazafa. Beirut, ‘Ālam al-Kutub.