A Study of Martyr Muṭahharī’s View to the Course of History

Document Type : Scholary


1 Department of Islamic Thought , Faculty of Islamic Sciences and Research, Imām Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of Quran and Hadith Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran


According to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions in general and Islam in particular, history is ultimately described as an evolved issue. Nonetheless, if this is accepted, the question arises as to whether the evolution of history occurs over time or all at once. This article examines the works of Martyr Muṭahharī, the Iranian revolutionary philosopher and scholar, with a descriptive-analytical method and tries to answer this question from his point of view. In the first part, the foundations of Martyr Muṭahharī’s view to the evolution of the course of history are explained. Then, while expressing the components of realism in the interpretation of history, some problems that are raised against the evolution of history are answered from his point of view. These include human’s right-seeking nature, human’s utilitarianism, and the legacy of the prophets. Muṭahharī has taken a philosophical approach to commenting on the course of history, which seems to be more relevant to the question of the evolution of history. Emphasizing the legitimacy of the history process and ruling the principle of causality on historical events, he communicates between the past, the present, and the future of history, and thus provides a meaningful basis for historical continuity.


Main Subjects

The noble Qur’ān
Alwīrī, M. (2013), «The thought of Mahdīsm and the new islamic civilization». Quarterly Waiting for the Promised, No. 42, 7-26.
Bukhārī, A.M. (1980 ), Ṣaḥīḥ Bukhārī. Beirut, Dār Iẖyāʾ Al-Turāth al-ʿArabī.
Dārimī, A.M. (n.d.), Sunan a-Dārimī (vol. 2). Beirut, Dār al-Kitāb al-’Ilmīyyah.
Edwards, P. (1996), Philosophy of history (collection of articles). Translated by B. Sālikī, Tehran, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies.
Goldstein, W.S. (2009), Marx, critical theory, and religion: A critique of rational choice (studies in critical Sociology). Chicago, Haymarket Books.
Ja’farī, M.T. (1986), Translation and interpretation of Nahj al-Balāghah (vol. 16). Tehran: Islamic Culture Publishing Office.
Lewis, J. (1975), «Marx and Religion». New Humanist, vol. 91, No. 2, 34-37.
Marx, K. &  F. Engels (1974), The communist manifesto. In D. Fernbach (ed.), The revolutions of 1848: political writings (vol. 1, pp. 62-98). New York, Penguin Classics.
Miṣbāḥ, M.T. (1989), Society and history from the perspective of the Qur’ān. Tehran, Islamic Propagating Organization.
Muṭahharī, M. (1998), Collection of works (vol. 2). Tehran, Ṣadrā.
Id. (2008), Collection of works (vol. 1, pp. 15, 18, 24). Tehran, Ṣadrā.
Id. (2009), Collection of works (vol. 3). Tehran, Ṣadrā.
Id. (2011), Mahdī uprising and revolution from the perspective of philosophy of history. Tehran, Ṣadrā.
Nawdharī, H.A. (2000), Philosophy of history. Tehran, Ṭarḥi Naw.
Nietzsche, F. (1980), On the advantage and disadvantage of history for life. Translated by P. Preuss, Indianapolis, Hackett.
Rashad, A. (2004), «The divine end of history». Qabasāt Quarterly, No. 33, 13-36.
Ṣadr, S. M. (1989), The complete collection of works by Ṣadr. Beirut, Dār al-Ta’āruf lil-Maṭbū’āt.
Sinclair , M. (2004), «Nietzsche and the problem of history». Richmond Journal of Philosophy, No. 8, 1-6.
Stanford, M. (2005), An introduction to the philosophy of history. Translated by A. Gulmuḥammadī, Tehran, Nay Publishing.
Surūsh, A. (1979), Philosophy of history. Tehran, Payam Azadi Publishing.
Ṭabāṭabā’ī, M.Ḥ. (1995), Shi’a in Islam. Qom, Islamic Publications Office.
Yunger, M.J. (1970), Scientific study of religion. New York, Macmillan Publishing.