The Meaning of Sabab as the Reason for the Victoriousness of Dhul-Qarnayn


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Knowledge, Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Bihbahan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Qur’an Sciences, Isfahan Faculty of Qur’anic Sciences, University of Quranic Sciences and Education, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Qur’an and Hadith Sciences, Faculty of Islamic Theology, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


In the light of the fact that the Qur’ān is connected to the divine knowledge, this article examines the exegetic opinions and the definitive religious realities, and compares and analyzes them in order to decode the mysterious references made by the Qur’ān to the unmatched victoriousness of Dhul-Qarnayn in designing and founding the infrastructure of a magnificent civilization with a highly developed management and technology. The unique management of Dhul-Qarnayn in his crossing over the globe, opposition to oppression, promotion of justice, technological skill in the construction of a dam, domination over enemies, the creation of an enduring security for the citizens, and finally, the processing of a monotheistic cultural system are the goals that are mentioned in the Qur’ān 18:84-98. All these goals are fulfilled outstandingly due to Dhul-Qarnayn’s adherence to a reality called “sabab.” From the viewpoint of the majority of exegetes, the paramount instance of sabab is “knowledge or its instances or results,” based on which this mysterious character could achieve all those successes. Accordingly, this article specifically inspects the story of Dhul-Qarnayn and some other prophets of God who – based on the qur’ānic verses – relied on knowledge to significantly contribute to the excellence of the magnificent civilizations of their own eras. Then, it is concluded that to revive the glory of the civilization of the early centuries of Islam and to achieve a civilization appropriate to the advanced culture of Islam, Muslims have no way other than embarking upon various types of science and producing knowledge. In the light of the foregoing points and the verses and narrations that depict Imām Mahdī‘s government and civilization, we might claim that the multifaceted character of Dhul-Qarnayn is an illustration of the complete, comprehensive, and impeccable character of Imām Mahdī (may God hasten his reappearance) in the End of Days.


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